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Alerion Express Cat 19 and Marshall Sanderling 18

The new alerion, by garry hoyt, is faster and more easily handled, but the elder sanderling retains the catboat’s traditional appeal as well as a viable interior..

Catboats started out as workboats. According to marine historian Howard I. Chapelle, beamy, single-sailed centerboarders with half-decked hulls and barn door rudders began to appear in America around 1840, when, for the first time, there was sufficient demand to make fishing from small boats profitable. Sailed mostly in Lower New York Harbor and on Cape Cod Bay, cats fished, freighted, ferried, and packeted for decades. Their simplicity, stability, and shallow draft made them versatile, and their efficiency and ease of handling made them popular.

In the 1880s and ‘90s, catboat racing flourished, especially around New York. In that Gilded Age, unlimited “sandbaggers” with sky-scraping gaffs and gangs of crew pushed the type towards its speed (and safety) limits. Throughout the years, catboats have also made fine yachts.

Built in wood by local yards, small cats suitable for daysailing and overnighting eventually became available as production boats. In more recent years, cats have enjoyed a minor renaissance. Fleets numbering in the 40s can be found at New Jersey and New England yacht clubs. The second life of the traditional cat began in 1962 when Breck Marshall built the first one in fiberglass. He went into limited production with an 18-footer called the Sanderling, after the wave-skipping shore bird. His shop was in New Hampshire. He sold a few boats, but in addition to the problems of trying to sell the sailors of that day on “plastic boats,” he encountered resistance brought on by his location.

“People couldn’t imagine,” Marshall wrote, “a boat like that being built in New Hampshire. But when I moved the company to Padanaram, Massachusetts, down to the saltwater and the natural habitat of the catboat, things picked up and we sold all the boats we could build.”

Marshall died in 1976, but shop foreman John Garfield bought the company from Marshall’s widow and kept filling orders. The 751st Sanderling was delivered at this fall’s U.S. Sailboat Show in Annapolis, Maryland. The Sanderling was the first “modern” catboat on the scene, but it has been joined over the years by a raft of reproductions, developments on traditional lines, and original designs, all built in fiberglass with aluminum spars. In addition to Marshall’s 15′ Sandpiper and the Marshall 22, the list includes the 21′ Atlantic City Cat (affording both inboard power and 6′ headroom); the popular Nowak & Williams-built, Halsey Herreshoff-designed Herreshoff America cats; One Design Marine’s Chappaquidick 25; the Wittholz-Hermann Cape Cod cat, (17-1/2′ overall); the Americat 22 (modeled after a Sweisguth design of the 1920s and built by Vintage Boat Co.), and a series of Menger cats (15, 19, and 23) from Menger Boatworks.

The most recent is the Alerion Express Cat. Garry Hoyt has always been a pioneer. In the 1970s he revived free-standing spars with his Freedom 40 and followed it with learn-to-sail boats like the Expo Solar Sailer and Escape, as well as a series of inventions that include the patented Hoyt Gun Mount and Hoyt Jib Boom.

In 1998 he designed and built the 19′ Alerion cat “to combine the proven virtues of the catboat with modern sailing performance.” From the outset, cats have been recognized for their shallow-water capabilities, sprightly acceleration, superior load-carrying and comforting stability. Hoyt’s new cat is close enough to the mold to provide all of the above. In addition, its free-standing carbon fiber spar, self-vanging boom, dagger rudder, and light displacement take advantage of developments that weren’t around in either 1840 or 1962. These features combine to make the Alerion quicker. Hoyt has sailed his creation against the best of the Sanderling racing fleets and has demonstrated a speed edge of almost a minute a mile in all but the lightest airs.

There is, however, much more than seconds per mile to set the Sanderling and Alerion apart. Simplicity is a virtue of each, but they manifest it in different ways. Where the Alerion demonstrates a speed and handling edge, the Sanderling offers space and creature comforts that aren’t found in the newer boat. Base price of the Sanderling is $22,900. The Alerion Express Cat has a base price of $25,095.

Sanderling 18 Design. The prototype for the Sanderling was an 18-footer designed by Pop Arnold in 1941. Marshall said he inherited some plans and a handful of station molds from his work with Bill Tripp at American Boatbuilding in East Greenwich, Rhode Island. But, he wrote, he had no plans of the boat that became the Sanderling. Marshall spent about three weeks modeling by eye before he built the plug for the first Sanderling. And the hull he ended up with was significantly different from the model.

Sanderling’s entry was a major departure from the past. Catboats have always been close-winded (due primarily to the aerodynamic cleanness of a single sail) in smooth water, but because of the bluff, full bow sections necessary to buoy up their heavy wooden masts, they have earned a bad name for going slowly upwind in waves. By using a lighter (less than 70 pounds) aluminum mast, Marshall was able to make the Sanderling’s entry considerably finer. Over the years, the boat that Marshall created has performed well enough upwind in waves to confirm the wisdom of that modification.

The Pop Arnold model, Marshall said, “was not a pretty boat. She had a flat sheer with a kind of tumblehome ram bow in her. She had a square house.” Marshall corrected these deficiencies by giving the Sanderling a swept sheer, crowned cabin, tapered house, and slightly angled stem. Many modern eyes have never seen an original catboat, but, old or new, the catboat Marshall modeled is among the handsomest of the breed.

Says Garfield, “I think Marshall was influenced a lot by Bill Tripp. The waterplane of the Sanderling looks more like the underbody of a Tripp ocean racer of the time than it does the boxy traditional cats.” The Sanderling’s maximum beam of 8′ 6″ and length overall of 18′ 2″ approach the classic 1:2 proportions that distinguished the cats of old, but the waterline beam of less than 8′ makes it more modern under the water. So do the moderate deadrise (many cats are almost flat-bottomed) and tapered shape aft. It’s a marketing cliché today, but it seems to us that in the infancy of fiberglass boatbuilding Marshall combined traditional aesthetics with modern hydrodynamics. Catboats like the Nonsuch and certainly the Alerion Express Cat have continued the same theme of being old-fashioned to look at but up-to-date under the water.

Overnighting is a possibility on the Sanderling with two 6′ 6″ berths, a good amount of cubby stowage, and a built-in head.

Construction. The Pearson Triton, one of the earliest production fiberglass auxiliaries, was only four years old when Marshall built the first Sanderling in 1962. Coming from pioneering days, it was built to “more is more” scan’tlings. Building boats with glass and resin has come a long way since then, Located in South Dartmouth, Massachusetts, Marshall Marine still sells about 20 per year.

“We introduced the chopper gun back in 1972,” Garfield said, “and as gelcoat has improved we’ve taken advantage of the changes. We use all isophthalic gelcoat and resins now. The battens inside on the overhead used to be wood. Now they’re closed-cell foam. We added a collar molding around the mast hole, but from the rail down is sacred. We build them today the way Marshall did then.”

Marshall Marine uses polyester resin and alternating plies of mat and woven roving for a total of seven in the hull and adds four more to make a total of 11 plies along the centerline and in the way of the centerboard trunk. The mast step is molded separately and taped in place, as is the trunk. The interior is rough glass textured by the final layer of roving, but the mat/gelcoat exterior shows surprisingly little print-through.

The hull/deck joint is an overlapping deck flange. Sealed with compound and bolted on 12″ centers with 3/8″ diameter stainless steel bolts (through a mahogany rubrail), it has kept deck leaks to “an absolute minimum” Garfield reports.

The owner of hull #66 (built in 1964) confirmed that “deck leaks have never been a problem. We did, however, re-bed the ports two years ago because they were weeping. The only house leaks are through the bolt hole in the handrail where we popped out a wooden bung. We also encountered rot in the aft house bulkhead due to water seeping through cracked fiberglass tape, and a centerboard leak where the glass encapsulating the pivot bolt cracked. The plywood floor of the cockpit has had to be reglassed in places where the original fiberglass sheathing wore away.”

Performance. Many modern sailors have never sailed a gaff-rigged boat. When we first sailed the Sanderling we found Hoyt’s criticism of “confusing hoops, lifts, and jacks” apropos. And certainly, if the gaff was a viable rig, why did it die? We’ve grown to see, however, that while it does take getting used to, the gaff is not entirely outmoded. The flex in it is a good thing, similar to a modern flex-tipped (or carbon fiber a la the Alerion Express Cat) mast. It bends to leeward and loosens the leech in the puffs. The gaff is also less bulky than even a modern full-length spar, and for that reason the upper part of the mainsail benefits from cleaner airflow upwind. Draft control is surprisingly precise via adjustment of the peak (the halyard that lifts the middle of the gaff as opposed to the throat, which controls the inner end). Hoisting and dousing sail are more complicated operations, but then there’s only one sail to tend. There is no boom vang and the traveler isn’t adjustable.

The standard mainsheet trims from the end of the boom. This clears the cockpit for passengers. One owner said, “We bought a mainsheet cam cleat to mount by the after end of the centerboard trunk but we’ve never gotten around to it. It’s just simpler to wrap the sheet on the horn cleat aft.”

Sanderling’s big sail is good for ghosting. It has a relatively slippery shape and has the ability to reduce wetted surface a lot by heeling a little. “I’m amazed,” said one owner, “at how well she glides in breezes too light to see on the water. She may look clunky and complicated but she’s a joy to sail.”

Said another sailor, “we’ve made six- and eight-hour passages in her and averaged better than 5 knots under sail. For an 18-footer she can cover the ground. We’ve been pleased at how she took rough weather (25 knots under single reef), too.”

More than 200 Sanderlings are raced in one-design fleets said Garfield. “That’s one of the reasons that the boats haven’t changed much.”

Alerion Express Cat Design. Garry Hoyt is best-known for promotion and innovation in the area of free-standing rigs and sail handling systems. Currently he heads Newport R & D. With builder TPI, he has evolved the Alerion line of traditionally styled/performance-oriented cruising boats. The first of the line is the Nathaniel G. Herreshoff icon “Alerion,” redesigned by Carl Schumacher to produce the Alerion Express 28. While styled to resemble that classic, the 28 has less wetted surface, modern foils, lighter displacement, and simplified sail systems. As the ad copy proclaims, she’s a “classic beauty that will blow by most everything in the harbor.” The same formula of blending time-honored looks with up-to-the-instant performance has yielded the daysailer/overnighter Alerion Express 20 and the Alerion Express 38 cruising yawl. Always interested in ways to make sailing easier, it seems only natural that Hoyt next turned his attention to the catboat.

A Sunfish world champion and veteran campaigner in Finns and Lasers, Hoyt is well-acquainted with single-sail boats. A designer who has long focused on simplifying sailing, he has come up with a multitude of innovations geared to streamlining handling and boosting performance. Most noticeable of those on the Alerion Express Cat is the patented Hoyt Free Standing Self Vanging Boom. It’s the same idea as the Jib Boom used on other Alerion headsails and is similar in concept to Dave Bierig’s Camberspar‰ used to tension the vestigial jibs seen on Freedom sloops. On a catboat, it permits a loose-footed mainsail.

The Alerion’s sleeved mainsail rolls around a free-standing mast on “special Harken bearings.” A green “go” line and a red “stop” line for shortening sail further simplify the system. Thirty seconds of pulling on control lines and it’s deployed. Friction in the system is minimal. The Jib Boom is the least-traditional element in the Alerion’s looks, but it facilitates precise and variable shape control as well as roller furling ease of sail deployment.

The most-radical of Hoyt’s innovations is the rudder. Starting with the planform of the traditional shallow draft, low-aspect ratio “barn door,” Hoyt cut the rudder away below the waterline. The forward third of the rudder is a high-aspect ratio, foil-shaped pivoting blade. When drawn up it fills the cutout and the rudder looks and works like a barn door. When deployed it gives deep draft control and high-lift efficiency. The configuration also helps address the legendary weather helm that has always been the catboat’s Achilles Heel. “Tiller load,” said Hoyt, “is the real culprit. Reduce tiller load and you attack that problem.” During our test sail off Newport, Rhode Island, he demonstrated traditional weather helm on a beam reach in 10 knots of air with the blade up, and, in the same conditions, virtually no tug on the tiller with the blade down. Combining a conventional kick-up rudder with the barn door seems to work very well.

Less successful, we felt, is the effect this combination of modern elements has on the “timeless” catboat aesthetic. Carbon fiber spar and self-vanging boom catapult the boat out of the familiar into the futuristic. Sheer, hull proportions, and management of freeboard are aesthetic building blocks that we feel are somewhat jumbled with the Alerion. Though Hoyt’s design and the Sanderling undoubtedly come from the same cat family, the new boat is not the prettiest of the litter.

Hoyt describes the Alerion’s interior as a “huddling spot.” The entry is cubby-style beneath the foredeck rather than via a standard sliding companionway. Sleeping is athwartships on a pieced-together platform. There is space for a porta-potty.

Construction. TPI’s patented SCRIMP system is a proven technique for producing strong, lightweight hulls. It’s used on all J-Boats. By infusing the resin into the laminate in a single shot, TPI is able to count on a finished product with a high glass/resin ratio and a minimum of voids. The Alerion cat weighs just 1,750 lbs., and its moderately light displacement comes almost entirely from the weight saved by employing the resin infusion process in conjunction with a laminate schedule engineered to make the most of modern fabrics. The process bonds all plies simultaneously rather than depending, as does traditional layer-by-layer construction, upon a series of what amounts to secondary bonds. Air chambers aft and in the way of the mast provide positive flotation. A raised sole makes the cockpit self-bailing.

Performance. Under sail is where the advances incorporated in Hoyt’s design pay off. “It’s not that we walk away from Sanderlings, but on every point of sail we’re just a little bit faster.” Hoyt said. Whenever new cat has met old that’s been the case. The Alerion is significantly lighter than competing cats, has a foil-shaped centerboard, a dagger rudder, a larger sail, and a computer-optimized hull design. In very light breezes, the traditionally boomed Sanderlings seem, said Hoyt, to hold their sails better than the Alerion’s loose-footed main, but once the wind tops 3 knots the Alerion has proven faster.

Reducing weather helm is a significant achievement that gives the Alerion much-improved sailing “manners,” especially on a reach in a breeze. Hoyt gave his cat 300 pounds of internal ballast, 150 pounds in the weighted board, and that weight contributes righting moment as the board is lowered to its 4′ 4″ maximum draft. Also, it significantly reduces the braking effect of an over-taxed barn door rudder. The Sanderling has 500 pounds of ballast.

The catboat’s weatherliness was convincingly demonstrated when we sailed the Alerion off Newport. We hooked up with a J/22 (admittedly sailed by students) and more than held our own over 3 miles of upwind work in 12 knots of breeze and chop. Ancient as the cat rig may be, it was clear to us that this one is no dog.

Comfort and sailing ease are big parts of catboat appeal. The Alerion’s easy-handling sail systems, combined with the high coamings and maximum elbow room of the archetypal catboat cockpit, make the Alerion shine in these areas. The standard cockpit table on the Alerion is convenient and suitably placed for optimal bracing, but it takes up a fair amount of room and the clearance between it and the tiller is minimal. Sailing up to a dock or mooring is simplified because you can get rid of part or all of the sail at a moment’s notice.

A lightweight spar plus custom-built gin-pole simplify rigging and suit the new cat for trailering.

Conclusions Catboats have proven virtues. Both the Sanderling and the Alerion Cat are nimble sailboats. (But both are a challenge to jibe in heavy air.) Both can carry more people in comfort than your average 19-footer. Both have superior initial stability but a centerboarder’s vulnerability to capsizing.

Marshall moved cats into fiberglass and used the materials and concepts of his day to improve the breed. Generations have embraced his design and the Marshall cat has become a mini-classic. Hoyt’s Alerion furthers the process. It is a clear step forward in performance and handling ease. The Alerion’s comfort under sail is superior, but by making the interior something of an afterthought we feel Hoyt reduced its overall versatility and creature-friendliness.

Contact- Alerion Express Cat 19, Newport R&D, 1 Maritime Dr., Portsmouth, RI 02871; 401/683-9450. Sanderling, Marshall Marine Corp., Box P-266, South Dartmouth, MA 02748; 508/994-0414.


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A virtual port of call for all those who love the sea , hosted by nautical novelist rick spilman.

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Our New 40 Year Old Herreshoff America 18 Catboat – In Praise of Classic Plastic

Two months ago, I bought a Herreshoff America 18 catboat, an example of what I consider to be “classic plastic,” a timeless design, built to last.  Built in 1973, at forty years old, her hull is still solid and sound.  She is on at least her second sail (she only has one, a 250 square foot gaff rigged main.)  Her aluminum mast is original as are her boom and gaff.  I am only her third owner, or so the last owner told me.  The first owner is said to have owned her for close to 39 years. In this case, the sailor wore out before the boat.  He is said to have sold the catboat when he was in his 80s and couldn’t sail anymore. The next owner found that he was too busy to sail, kept her for a season, and then passed the boat along to me (in exchange for a cashier’s check.)

Once I owned the boat, I found that I was too busy to get her in the water for two months. Over the Fourth of July weekend, we finally launched her and had a wonderful sail on Lake George. For a tubby 18 footer, with an 8′ beam and weighing in at 2,500 pounds, she sails amazingly well. We screamed along at close to 6 knots, which for a boat with a 17.75′ waterline is pretty impressive. Having a sail area to displacement ratio of almost 23 definitely helps.

I recall distinctly when I saw my first Herrsehoff America 18. It was in the late 70s, so the boat must have been fairly new.  The catboat was sailing down the channel into Stamford harbor. She was a small boat but with a beam almost half her length she had a certain presence. She was on a broad reach and her gaff-rigged mainsail looked huge and stately. She was lovely.  Decades later, my opinion hasn’t changed.

Our New 40 Year Old Herreshoff America 18 Catboat – In Praise of Classic Plastic — 29 Comments

Very, very happy for you! She’s beautiful! I see nothing wrong with 40 year old classic glass, nothing! Of course, that’s coming from a guy who has only owned old wood boats and knows and understands rot, but is about to buy a 33 year old glass girl that’s not quite as classic as that Herreshoff but will be my home.

She’s a nice looking boat, Richard, congrats. I don’t own a boat but often sail a Chesapeake 32, designed by Phil Rhodes. Built in 1958 in Denmark and delivered to the US in 1960, hull # 1 of the series. Primary sailing ground is out of North East MD, at the very top of the Chesapeake. She’s a bit deep draft for this area, so we mind that we keep to the channel. There’s enough upkeep/refit involved that I can only imagine a wooden boat…must needs deep pockets.

Congratulations! She’s beautiful. I think that wood is over-idealised by sailors. Many of us would like to have a wood sailboat, but few of us are JP Morgan! Fibreglass is practical and durable – two important attributes for a boat that sees use.

May your Herreshoff see a lot of use!

Congrats on your purchase ! Any Herreshoff boat is going to look good on the water, I don’t think it’s possible for anyone with that last name to draw an ugly boat. My old 1973 O’day 27 (#67) sails every weekend on Chesapeake Bay. There’s something to be said for being able to haul out one weekend and drop in the next and basically be done for the season . Stay safe out on the lake !

Congrats on getting the boat in the water and having a spouse that shares your interests and enthusiasm! And you get to go sailing too!

I just started sailing Hull #371 after she had sat for almost 2 decades. I have owned several other monohulls, but I think I like the “America” the most. I still prefer my Stiletto 27, but this little boat is a close second.

I have a friend who used to own one of these classic boats and he wishes that he still did. I would like to build him a half hull model, but I can’t seem to find a set of plans. Any idea who built these beauties, or where I might get a set of plans (or at least the line drawings)?

I am very lucky to own two classics, the America and the Eagle! I sail into any harbor and the Hinckley people all say wow what a beautiful boat. The America is a classic and sails just fine on Buzzards Bay! The Eagle is a little newer and the same comments happen every time we enter a harbor under sail . The lines are beautiful and the topsail rig is outstanding and yes it does sail very well on all points! My America is faster but the Eagle sails better in rough waters!!!

Thanks for the comment. I envy you your Herreshoff fleet. The different rigs on essentially the same hull are intriguing. As much as I appreciate the looks of a classic catboat, I do love the looks of the Eagle.

We live in Kingston, Ontario, the East end of Lake Ontario and have just bought a 1974 Herreshoff America 18 Catboat and have just put her in the water. I can’t wait to sail her but the ‘through the deck’ mast is not stepped yet.

As I see many of these boats have tabernacles, for next summer we would like to build one from wood for her, and I think I can use the drawings for the aluminium one (with adoptions of course), but does anyone have any ideas of how to attach the tabernacle to the deck and the ‘post’ supporting it all? I was thinking of sandwiching the deck with 3/4″ ply (well finished and bolted of course) and this would be attached to the tabernacle on top and the ‘post’ underneath. What about using the cut off piece of mast for the ‘post’ ?

Anyone know who I could ask about this?

Cheers, Ruth

I built a tabernacle by sleeving the original mast with a length of Schedule 40 marine aluminum pipe that I ordered online. (The ID of the pipe and the OD of the mast make it possible.) So far I am quite happy with it. Here are a few photos of the finished tabernacle . My tabernacle is a modified version of the design used on the HA18 Platereo (click here.) The nice thing about sleeving the mast is that you can use the original mast step and fittings. There is no need to modify the deck.

Several years ago, Jean Miele put together a wonderful rigging guide to the HA18 which he posted on his web page. There is a plan for a tabernacle on page 3 & 14. Click here to go to his web page.

Hi, Sadly I must sell my Herreshoff American.Do you know anybody who wants a well maintained Cat boat for $6,500 .Bob

Have you tried the Catboat Association used boat listings? That where I found my boat. Listing your boat is free, though you do have to be a member.


Thanks for a very nice site. I have admired the Herreshoff America since the mid 70’s when a client of mine purchased one. At the time I owned the first of my two CD Typhoon’s and we would engage in friendly racing. They were two beauties under sail. Having an adventurous nature, and sometimes less than cautious, he in the America and a friend in his Catalina 22 left the Manatee Pocket, Port Salerno, FL bound for The Bahamas. They enjoyed a great trip and he sported a great smile upon his return.

I am waiting for a call from a broker to take me to see an HA that is for sale locally. Fingers crossed.

Have just swapped a Dyer Midget sailing dinghy for an H.A. Cat Boat. She needs a little tender loving care but otherwise she is sound. Just spent a week on her and had a great time. Took a little time to get used to her large sail! I also have a open cockpit Cape Dory Typhoon and a Hunter 40 that we have sailed over forty thousand miles. The only problem she has is a bad leak. The only place it can be is in the center board trunk. Does any one have any suggestions? Any help will be very appreciated.

I know the Herreshoff cat boat fleet very well. I’m a retired sailmaker and made some of the first sails for the America and all the original sails for the Herreshoff Eagle and the Minuteman boats. I’m delighted to read that many sailors are still sailing them. I still have all the data on these sails and if you are in need of a replacement sail , I can be of service. Happy sailing .

That Cat you saw sailing into Stamford Harbor we me–on Drummer Buoy. My wife and I had our honeymoon on her and she served us well until we built a larger NorSea 27 to sail the world. Drummer Buoy was a great boat. She took good care of us and taught us much. She was sold to a very dear friend when we moved up to the 27 and he still sails her out of Stamford.

Congratulations the America is a timelss design. Ed Zacko January 2016

Wow. Great to make the connection. Did you then keep the NorSea27 in Yacht Haven West? I recall seeing one a few docks over.

I am now selling my Herreshoff. Fun to sail but I wanted more space for cruising. Our new/old Albin Nimbus 42 is being worked on as I type down in Virginia.

Rick, I saw your note that you are selling your Herreshoff. Is it still for sale? If so, where can I learn more about it and see pictures of it? Don

I have enjoyed reading the posts about catboats. I will be putting my 18′ HA Catboat up for sale in the next two weeks. She is a 1971 in good condition and will be fairly priced (under $5000). Boat, motor, trailer and many extras. Mike

I am the new owner of a 1976 Herreshoff America located on Cape Cod. She will be my “summer boat” as I live aboard my IP 38 in Florida and desire to escape the heat. I bought her sight unseen to sail to Maine this June and July. I need help with some dimensions. I would like to repower her with a newer outboard with electric start so I can charge a small house battery. Any idea on what will fit in the well? The dimensions including height? Also will I need a long shaft or short shaft? Any other suggestions would be appreciated. Terri Ivins SV “Sailbatical” IP 38 SV “Annie” HA 18

Mike Stephen, I am interested in learning more about your boat if it is still for sale. How can I get in touch with you? Don




Rick, is there any way you could send me the details for constructing the tabernacle. Specifically the measurements for the cuts and the procedure for making them? Thanks, Frank

I cannot find the sketches I made. I plan on working on the boat next week so I can take some measurements when I get back to it.

Thanks for the reply Rick. I plan to do the mod as a winter project and I have a lot of questions. Perhaps rather than tying up this site we could correspond direct through email if that would work for you?

I bought a 1972 HA 18 last fall and spent all winter cleaning, sanding, epoxying, varnishing, and painting. Finally put it in the water at the delta last week and what a cool sailboat! I did not replace the running rigging and was wondering if there is a list of lengths for rigging. Was the original rigging 3/8″? Not too many of these on the left coast.

Rick, Like Frank Volk, I am also planning to modify my Herrshoff America this winter to add a tabernacle. Can you please send the information and measurements you provided to Frank. Or if it would be easier, we could communicate via email. Thanks for the help. Don

Series Small Boats Annual 2009

Fenwick Williams’s 18’ Catboat

A frisky little cat

F enwick Williams designed 17 catboats from 8′ to 30′ in length. All of them are legendary, but his first, an 18-footer created during the height of the Great Depression in 1931, stands out as a little gem.

Originally intended to be an inexpensive craft for people who couldn’t afford larger boats, Design No. 1 remains popular today because of its perky appearance, comfort, and lively performance. Her stability and ease of handling accommodate young and old, from a software designer escaping the digital world to a traffic-weary bus driver seeking peace and quiet. Retired senior editor of the Catboat Association, John Peter Brewer describes this family of boats with both accuracy and affection:

“The catboat is …an American art form. She was developed, built and sailed with great skill by ordinary men who needed her for honest work. Her origins go back at least 160 years, and perhaps more.

“…the hull is wide and the big, gaff-rigged sail is set on a strong mast with a single forestay well forward near the stem…the sail is controlled with a topping lift, lazy jacks, separate throat and peak halyards, [and] reef points…. The gaff main is not meant to be picturesque. It’s to lower the center of effort, give more drive off the wind and allow more control through the peak halyard and topping lift…. The classic catboat has a plumb stem, high bow, and big barndoor rudder. Those cats 17 feet or more usually have a cuddy cabin with two bunks and the rudiments for overnight sailing.”

18 cat sailboat

With her large cockpit, easily handled sail, and anchor on the bowsprit, LYDIA is ready to take the whole family for an afternoon sail or an all-day picnic. If it gets late, there is room for all hands to spend the night, with the kids sleeping under a boom tent.

As Brewer describes it, the catboat was originally a working boat with features designed for the fishing trade. For example, if you slack out the mainsheet and put the helm down, she will come up into the wind and to a virtual stop, ready for hauling lobster traps or shellfish nets. A friend of ours used to startle the committee boat judges at informal mixed-class “chowder races” by pulling up to within a couple of yards of the starting line and letting the mainsheet run. While all of the Bermuda-rigged boats tacked for position, he simply waited there until the starting gun, when he hauled in the boom and started sailing. He was inevitably first across the line at the start— although seldom at the finish. Another advantage to the gaff rig is the ability to lower the peak in a sudden blow. Called the “fisherman’s reef,” this maneuver spills air and helps maintain control of the boat.

After finishing Harvard Graduate School in the summer of 1967, Frank Cassidy answered an ad for a partially completed catboat. “I didn’t know what a catboat was,” he confesses; “I think I was probably expecting something with two hulls.” Actually, it was a weathered 18′ single hull, with only a few planks installed below the sheer, most of which had to be replaced; a pile of lumber; some screws and bolts; and a set of plans for Fenwick Williams’s Design No. 1. Except for the cross spalls spanning the sawn and steam-bent frames, there was nothing on deck, or above the sheer—the interior was totally open. He bought it all for $250.

Completing the boat took most of Frank’s spare time over the next five years. Frank christened the completed 18-footer KITTY KELLY, his mother’s nickname. She was launched from Mattapoisett, Massachusetts, in the spring of 1973. Over the next four years, Frank and his wife Lynda cruised her from nearby Marion with their two small children.

My late wife Jane and I first saw KITTY KELLY sitting on the trailer Frank had made. She had a prim white hull topped by caramel-colored teak cabin and coaming, with mint green Dynel on plywood decks. Her profile displayed all of the big catboat design elements in miniature, balanced and poised to go: a well-proportioned outboard rudder, plumb stern, and springy sheer swooping forward and upward to a snappy stem with just a touch of tumblehome. She was for sale and, clearly, she wanted to go home with us. That she did, and flying in the face of superstition, we rechristened her AUNT LYDIA after a favorite relative.

From 1978 to 1985, we explored the New England coast from Hingham, Massachusetts, to Kennebunkport, Maine, accompanied by our 28-lb Sheltie. We poked around little coves and rivers, confident that our 2′ draft (with the centerboard up) would allow us to glide over shoals. AUNT LY DIA gave us nothing but good luck, economy, and convenience. Eschewing yard fees, she sat comfortably covered in our driveway during the winter. Her size was ideal for trailering to a ramp for a spring launching. We opted to lace the sail to her mast, which proved quicker to rig than the traditional hoops and easier to raise and lower as well.

Getting underway for a month’s vacation or a Sunday afternoon day sail is a simple matter of raising the luff with the throat halyard and peaking the gaff; both operations are performed from the cockpit. The only reason to go forward is to drop the mooring line. The moment you fall off on one tack or the other and start to move, the balance of this design becomes abundantly apparent. In a moderate-air reach, I could connect the tiller and mainsheet in a makeshift autopilot. Even in a stiff breeze she has only enough weather helm to give you the feel of the boat through the tiller, but not so much as to invite an arm-wrestling match. She rides in the water with confidence, going smoothly over swells, and flattening all but the most violent chop.

Like the saucy young clipper spotted on Paradise Street in the sea chantey “Blow the Man Down,” AUNT LYDIA is bluff in the bow. In fact, her bow is so full that one imaginative Marbleheader, Rodney Bowden, named his sister 18-footer (built in the late 1940s by Charlton Smith) BUXOM LASS. The reason for this fullness is buoyancy. Fenwick believed that a sharp bow on a catboat with its large sail set well forward tends to dig into the water, giving a heavy weather helm on close reaches and slowness when tacking. Williams positioned the centerboard trunk alongside the keel instead of cutting a slot through it. His keel is slightly deeper for extra stability with the board up. Another characteristic of his designs is a moderate and consistent deadrise from amidships to the stern. The resulting lifted quarters combined with the fullness forward prevents the bow from depressing when heeling.

18 cat sailboat

Some of the catboat’s traditional characteristics are the single gaff sail with its mast stepped well forward, cat’s-eye (elliptically shaped) portholes in the cabin sides, and a barn-door rudder.

A standard catboat’s beam is roughly half of its overall all length. This 18-footer’s 8’6″ beam creates a compact but cozy living space belowdeck. Her cockpit, made extra large in the working catboats to hold a haul of cod, scallops, or oysters, makes an ideal parlor for afternoon wine parties. We had a boom tent made, wherein we spent many a rainy afternoon reading and listening to music. The high coaming, originally intended to keep large following seas out, is also excellent for keeping active toddlers and pets in.

Frank Cassidy’s objective was to provide for a family of four sleeping inside the cabin in safety and relative comfort. He accomplished this with an ingenious arrangement of rails and two triangular inserts which sat on the rails to fill the gaps between the settees and the table. Two triangular cushions completed the double bunk for four.

We replaced KITTY KELLY’s 6-hp Evinrude outboard with a 9-hp Mercury. A couple of years later, Bob Cloutman of Marblehead installed a Universal Atomic Two inboard, which worked like a charm and, with the outboard bracket removed, gave us a more classic stern.

As an alternative to carvel planking, Australian Michael Storer reworked the structure to be built in cedar strips by David Wilson of Duck Flat Wooden Boats for Rob O’Callaghan. He describes some of his changes: “First, the boat is very much simpler. All ribs, knees, bilge stringers are eliminated, giving a much cleaner interior and cutting the labor required to build the hull to a fraction of traditional methods. Many other parts can be combined compared to the original design—sheer clamp and deck clamp can be combined, and the stem and backbone can be simplified into a simple scarfed structure with the hull skin itself acting as a knee between the two members.

18 cat sailboat

Ghosting along on a starboard tack, LYDIA shows Fenwick Williams’s saucy sheerline to good advantage. The green bottom, without a boot-top, is reminiscent of old-time yachts.

“The result is an immensely strong monocoque construction with loads from one area being dissipated into many others. There are no lazy bits of boat. The cabin and cockpit seat tops and fronts stiffen and support the hull skin, transferring loads into the bulkheads and centerboard case. This boat is much stronger than the original design, and much faster and cheaper to build because of the structural simplification.

“One of the aims was to create a boat that could live on a trailer without any risk of drying out the planking so that it would start to leak, or [risk of] trailering loads damaging hull integrity.”

18 cat sailboat

Fenwick Williams’s original drawings for his 18′ catboat specify carvel planking and solid backbone timbers. The boat has been built, however, in cedar strips and epoxy, creating a structure that can be dry-sailed.

This Boat Profile was published in Small Boats 2009 and appears here as archival material. Boat plans for the Williams 18′ Catboat are available from The WoodenBoat Store .

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Comments (6)

Had one of these built at the Apprenticeshop, modified design by the late Joe Liener who saw one being built after the war. He went home and built BUXOM LASS of Salem. Mine was GOBLIN with an old-time rig which meant the first reef in at about 10 knots, but I rarely needed the outboard. My old boat is still sailing, now on Narragansett Bay.

Is it really over 3,000 pounds as advertised?

I suspect that I once came across AUNT LYDIA on a launching ramp in Hingham Harbor. This was decades ago but the memory stays with me, despite ownership of a few less memorable cats since. The proportions seemed just right. And, the wood hull brings own wonderful feel to the beholder. Fenwick Williams was a genius.

I would very much to talk to F. Marshall Bauer. I have a Fenwick Williams 18′ from 1955 I rescued and will be restoring (shown as ‘Patchy Fog’ in ‘The Catboat Book.’). Could someone let me know how to contact? Thanks.

Sadly, according to an obituary published on the web, Mr. Bauer passed away in July, 2021. —Ed.

Thank you for republishing this. Wish I had one. While sailing near Shady Side, MD, last summer I watched a fleet of catboats jauntily sail out of the West River into the Chesapeake and they were a sight to remember.

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Williams 18' Catboat

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Husky, round-bottomed centerboard cruiser with accommodations for two.

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LOA - 18' LWL- 17' 6" Beam - 8' 6" Draft (cb up) - 2' (cb down) - 4' 8" Displ. - 3,763 lbs. Sail Area - 247 - 265 sq. ft. Construction: Carvel planked over sawn & steamed frames Lofting is required Skill level: Advanced Plans include 11 sheets, plus 4 pages of additional notes from the designer.

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Sailboats - Cruising

18' catboat.

Construction: Carvel planked over sawn & steamed frames. Alternative construction: Cold-molded or strip. Lofting is required. Plans include 11 sheets.

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Alpha Cat 18 is a 18 ′ 0 ″ / 5.5 m catamaran sailboat designed by Tom Roland and built by NACRA Catamarans and Glastron starting in 1970.

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The theoretical maximum speed that a displacement hull can move efficiently through the water is determined by it's waterline length and displacement. It may be unable to reach this speed if the boat is underpowered or heavily loaded, though it may exceed this speed given enough power. Read more.

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Hull Speed = 1.34 x √LWL

Max Speed/Length ratio = 8.26 ÷ Displacement/Length ratio .311 Hull Speed = Max Speed/Length ratio x √LWL

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A measure of the power of the sails relative to the weight of the boat. The higher the number, the higher the performance, but the harder the boat will be to handle. This ratio is a "non-dimensional" value that facilitates comparisons between boats of different types and sizes. Read more.

SA/D = SA ÷ (D ÷ 64) 2/3

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Ballast / Displacement Ratio

A measure of the stability of a boat's hull that suggests how well a monohull will stand up to its sails. The ballast displacement ratio indicates how much of the weight of a boat is placed for maximum stability against capsizing and is an indicator of stiffness and resistance to capsize.

Ballast / Displacement * 100

Displacement / Length Ratio

A measure of the weight of the boat relative to it's length at the waterline. The higher a boat’s D/L ratio, the more easily it will carry a load and the more comfortable its motion will be. The lower a boat's ratio is, the less power it takes to drive the boat to its nominal hull speed or beyond. Read more.

D/L = (D ÷ 2240) ÷ (0.01 x LWL)³

  • D: Displacement of the boat in pounds.
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This ratio assess how quickly and abruptly a boat’s hull reacts to waves in a significant seaway, these being the elements of a boat’s motion most likely to cause seasickness. Read more.

Comfort ratio = D ÷ (.65 x (.7 LWL + .3 LOA) x Beam 1.33 )

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CSV = Beam ÷ ³√(D / 64)

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Cats On Liveaboard Sailboats - A Complete Guide

Cats On Liveaboard Sailboats: A Complete Guide | Life of Sailing

Last Updated by

Daniel Wade

June 15, 2022

Cats are fun, safe, and friendly companions to countless liveaboard sailors. Caring for a cat on a sailboat can also be easy.

Cats can live safely and comfortably aboard sailboats with proper space, ventilation, climate control, and safety precautions. Most cities and marinas allow cats aboard, and they’re easy to care for if you take a few extra measures.

In this article, we’ll cover everything you need to know about living aboard a sailboat with a cat (or two). We’ll go over the best breeds for sailboats, essential cat safety measures, indoor and outdoor cats, toys and entertainment, and how to keep your cabin clean.

We sourced the information for this article primarily from the tips of liveaboard cat owners. We also researched cat breeds and behavior, along with which cats are best suited for long-term living aboard a sailboat.

Table of contents

Can You Keep a Cat on a Sailboat?

Yes! Cats are some of the best pets to have aboard sailboats. They generally require less attention in terms of exercise than dogs, and many cats can acclimate easily to living on a sailboat. Cats offer great company, and they’ve been kept on boats and ships for decades.

That said, there are several unique challenges that cat owners face while living aboard a sailboat. We’ll go over the best supplies and strategies soon, but first, we’ll cover the rules and legality of keeping cats in liveaboard sailboats.

Marina Rules and Pet Regulations

The most likely issue you’ll run into is the marina itself. Some marinas that allow liveaboards have strict pet policies. These are instituted primarily for sanitation reasons, and violating the rules can get you kicked out.

Liveaboard slips are hard to come by these days, so it’s best to abide by the marina’s policies. Be sure to contact your chosen marina and make sure you’ll be allowed to keep a cat on board. Some marinas have policies strictly for dogs or outdoor cats, so you may be off the hook.

Local Pet Ordinances

Local ordinances apply in just a few situations. First, some communities set limits on how many pets can occupy a residence. These limits are usually based on square footage, which is where liveaboards usually run into trouble.

For example, a city or county may specify that you can only keep one pet per 100 square feet of interior space. These rules may or may not apply to mobile dwellings (such as RVs and boats), so it’s best to check first. Regardless, most standard cruising sailboats can only comfortably (and hygienically) harbor one or two pets at a time.

How Many Cats Can You Keep on a Sailboat?

This question depends entirely on your cleaning capabilities and the size of your sailboat. A 30-foot sailboat cabin gets awfully cramped with two or three cats aboard, not to mention the litter box problem. Multiple cats using a litter box in a well-sealed fiberglass tube isn’t a good situation.

As a general rule, it’s best to start with one cat regardless of the size of your boat. That way, you can get acclimated to taking care of a cat on a boat before taking on additional pets. For vessels under 40 feet in length, two cats is a reasonable limit.

Benefits of Liveaboard Cats

There are numerous benefits to living aboard a sailboat with a cat! The first and most common benefit is the companionship of having your pet aboard. It can greatly enhance the atmosphere by adding comfort and a real sense of ‘home’ in the very utilitarian environment of a sailboat cabin.

Additionally, cats are a great way to keep pests from occupying your vessel. Many sailors leave the hatches open during the summer, and sailboats are a five-star destination for mice and other disease-riddled rodents. Cats are humanity’s oldest and most effective pest control system.

Cats also provide a great opportunity to bond with other liveaboards. From arranging playdates to sharing common experiences, keeping a cat or two aboard your sailboat is sure to add an extra layer of quality to your experience.

Indoor or Outdoor Cats: Which are Best for Sailboats?

The indoor/outdoor cat debate has raged between homeowners for decades, and the question is even more important to consider as a liveaboard.

The primary issue here is that cats are difficult to keep contained aboard a boat. Sailboats have lots of large openings for people to move in and out of. Hatches and portlights present ample opportunity for cats to ‘escape’ and run off up the dock. Having an outdoor cat somewhat negates the issue, as they’re free to come and go as they please.

Outdoor cats are the easiest to deal with if you like opening up your boat frequently, and it frees up deck space for your cat to relax and exercise in your presence. However, outdoor cats can bring in ticks and fleas, which can rapidly overrun a confined space like a sailboat cabin.

Indoor cats eliminate the tick and flea issue, but you’ll have to keep a much closer eye on them. Some cats naturally won’t stray off the boat, so there’s a possible solution. And yes, it’s entirely possible to keep a cat from escaping a sailboat if some precautions are taken.

Which Cat Breeds are Best for Liveaboard Sailboats?

Believe it or not, there are several cat breeds that are adapted for life on the water. It’s no guarantee that your cat will swim like a Golden Retriever, but many breeds are known for their affinity for water.

The best cat breeds for sailboats are the American Bobtail, the Maine Coon, the Manx, the Japanese Bobtail, the Norwegian Forest Cat, the Turkish Angora, the American Shorthair, the Turkish Van, and most varieties of Bengal cats.

How to ‘Cat-Proof’ Your Sailboat

Cat-proofing your sailboat is essential if you’re planning to have one aboard. Cat-proofing refers to steps you should take to protect your cat from getting into areas where it shouldn’t be.

First, make sure to seal off any open access to the bilge. Sailboat bilges are often wet, unsanitary, and confined—which is just asking for trouble. Additionally, make sure your cat can’t get into the engine compartment or anywhere fuel and oil are stored.

Make sure to enclose access to electrical panels and wiring, as cats are known to chew up or destroy essential wiring and systems. Also, they can give themselves an unpleasant shock from rubbing against or biting into the wrong wires.

All other spaces on your sailboat should be safe for cats, as long as they’re accessible and open. Make sure to keep cupboards closed, and consider adding netting over deep cubbies to prevent your cat from getting stuck or trapped behind a panel or bulkhead.

Liveaboard Cat Safety

Keeping your cat safe aboard your sailboat can be easy. The main concerns are temperature, water, and the environment. Below, we’ll go over how to keep your pet safe and comfortable in the unique environment of a liveaboard sailboat.

Can Cats Swim?

Many cats can swim to some extent, but they usually don’t like it. Any cat owner who’s tried to give their cat a bath can attest to this fact. However, cats can be acclimated to the water with some patience and routine practice.

Lifejackets for Cats

It’s a good idea to spend time in the water with your cat, as you want to be sure it can swim if it falls overboard. Using a specialized cat life jacket is a great way to start. These lifejackets are also useful in an emergency.

Leashes and Harnesses

Having a leash and a good cat harness is a great way to safely let your cat enjoy the deck space of a sailboat. Many liveaboards attach a leash to the deck rail or a stay wire. A leash and harness essentially double the amount of space your cat has to hang out.

If it’s long enough, it’ll allow your cat to explore and hang out on the deck without running away. Just be sure to keep it untangled from lines and rigging. Don’t attach a leash to a collar, as it can be hazardous if your cat tries to jump off the boat or gets snagged in the rigging.

You can also incorporate a lifejacket into a leash system, which is especially helpful when making an offshore passage or getting underway. It’s a great and inexpensive upgrade for you and your cat.

Climate and Temperature

When it comes to temperature, the same rules that apply to cars also apply to sailboats. Never let your boat get too hot with your cat inside. Make sure the vessel is well ventilated, heated, and air-conditioned if possible. Sailboat cabins can get extremely hot quite fast. Remember, if you’re sweating, your cat could be overheating much worse.

Cats on Sailboats: Sanitation

Nobody likes to think about sanitation, but it’ll be the only thing on your mind if your boat isn’t cat-friendly. Small spaces can be soiled rapidly, especially with an animal onboard. However, you don’t have to resign yourself to a dirty space when you have a liveaboard cat.

Litter and Litter Boxes

Choosing the right litter and litter box is essential to maintaining a clean and disease-free sailboat cabin for you and your cat. Cat waste is noxious and must be contained effectively.

Don’t skimp on litter quality! Deodorants in cheap litter only mask the smell for a short time (if at all), so it’s best to find a product with odor-killing abilities. The best way to do that is to purchase high-quality anti-odor cat litter (the pricey stuff) and a partially-enclosed litter box.  

Food and Water

Food and water are pretty self-explanatory aboard a sailboat, but it requires spatial consideration. You can still feed your high-quality cat food as long as there’s enough room aboard to store sufficient supplies. Additionally, you’ll need an anti-spill water bowl to prevent your floating home from rolling and spilling water everywhere.

Hair Control

Most cats shed, and cat hair isn’t the best addition to your upholstery. Thankfully, cat hair and other allergens can be controlled effectively with proper ventilation and cleaning tools. A simple dustbuster is sufficient for cleaning furniture and scooping up stray chunks of litter.


Keep that air moving! Cats need fresh air, and so do humans who live in confined spaces with cats. It’s easy to ensure your sailboat has adequate ventilation. Simply install a few solar-powered deck vents and crack a porthole. Additional passive ventilation (like a wind scoop) can be a lifesaver on hot and stagnant days.

Waste Disposal

You’ll probably have to clean the litter box about twice as often when living aboard a sailboat. The most important thing to remember is to get the waste off the boat as soon as possible.

Avoid flushing it down the toilet, as litter can expand and ruin pipes and septic tanks. Instead, bag it and take it to the marina dumpster. If you perform this task once every day or two, you’ll be in great shape.

Cat Toys for Liveaboard Sailboats

Keeping your cat entertained is pretty simple on a sailboat. Most liveaboard cat owners have a wide array of typical small cat toys. You could let your cat scratch up the furniture freely, though it’s better to find a place to add (or build) a scratching post.

Some sailors turn the bottom of a wooden bulkhead into a scratching post by stapling a sheet of thick cat carpet around the base. Other possible scratching post locations include the base of the mast, the centerboard trunk (if you have one), and the base of a table.

Related Articles

I've personally had thousands of questions about sailing and sailboats over the years. As I learn and experience sailing, and the community, I share the answers that work and make sense to me, here on Life of Sailing.

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18 Ft Sailboat Boats for sale

Renkin 18' Sailboat Tangerine Say Sailer

Renkin 18' Sailboat Tangerine Say Sailer

Sterling, Colorado

Make Renkin

Model 18'

Category Daysailer Sailboats

Length 18.0

Posted Over 1 Month

For Sale Renkin 18 Ft Sailboat. Also know as the Tangerine. This boat is in perfect conditionThe Renkin 18 was a hugely popular sailboat and if you are familiar with the Tangerine this is probably the nicest one you'll find available! Why? Because this boat has been in storage in a dry garage since 1994 with the sails were tucked away in a nylon sail bag. When we pulled it out of storage this year the only issue was the tires on the trailer. We bought brand new tires and rims and its ready to go.For me the look and feel of the tiller is something important. I've included a picture for all you skippers.Technical InformationBoat name: Renken 18 Sailboat (R18)LOA: 17'6"LWL: 15'3"Draft: 24"Beam: 6'4"Keel: fixed shoalDisplacement: 1220 lbsBallast: 450 lbsSleeps: 2 adults, 2 childrenSail area: main = 91 sq ft, jib = 59 sq ft, (total = 150 sq ft)Portsmouth # (for regattas): 112.4

1989 Catalina Capri 18 Sailboat

1989 Catalina Capri 18 Sailboat

Navarre, Florida

Make Catalina

Model Capri 18

Category Cruiser Motorcycles

1989 Capri 18 sailboat, made by Catalina Yachts. Well balanced helm, carries through tacks smoothly and is stable in both light and heavy air. Lightly used boat, great pocket cruiser, extra long cockpit with 6-foot, 10-inch contoured seats; a forward V-berth and two 7-1/2-foot-long quarterberths that can convert to a queen bunk; large portlights and forward hatch; plenty of storage above and below decks, including a molded-in fuel tank locker; a 48-quart portable cooler that doubles as a companionway step and a portable toilet under the V-berth. Light enough to be towed by SUV or minivan. Trailer sailed til Aug 2014, mostly freshwater. Main, jib and genoa in outstanding shape with sail covers. Gel coat in great shape. Mast, boom, running rigging and standing rigging excellent condition. Wing keel, Pettit bottom paint December 2014 by The Boat Yard in Ft Walton Beach. New 2009 Suzuki 4hp 4 stroke purchased from Lou's Marine August 2014. Quiet and sips gas. Interior in excellent condition, cushions make a pallet bed in lower berth. Trailer has 8 foot tongue extender, keel guides, spare tire. Serviced by Eddie English Boat Trailer December 2014. Road ready with new tires, new hubs and bearings and working lights. 1 7/8 inch ball. VHF radio Marine Battery Throwable flotation device Day Signal Fire extinguisher Anchor with line Boat hook Dock lines Fenders This boat is ready to sail, just add people, PFDs and lunch :) Clear Florida title for boat, Florida registration for trailer and Bill of Sale for motor provided. $5500 with motor, $4900 without. $500 deposit, balance within 3 days. Delivery negotiable.

Custom Flex Interlake Sailboat 18 ft with Pamco Trailer

Custom Flex Interlake Sailboat 18 ft with Pamco Trailer

Delphos, Ohio

Make Custom Flex

Model Interlake

This boat is a 1975 Custom Flex Interlake sailboat. The boat is complete as far as I can tell and includes the mast, boom, rudder, tiller, main and foresail and a Pamco trailer. I am the third owner of this boat, I have not sailed it but the previous owner was sailing the boat in 2013. The hull needs some fiberglass work done where the centerboard pocket is on the hull, and the floor has delaminated. The sails, rudder, mast and boom are in good condition. The tiller is in working condition but should be replaced.The Pamco trailer is in excellent condition and only needs tires and paint. I would probably replace the wooden guides also. The boat has a title, the trailer is registered. Local pickup only. Delivery might be arranged depending upon distance. No returns unless item not as described.

18ft sailboat on good trailer $400 obo Must sell

18ft sailboat on good trailer $400 obo Must sell

Winter Garden, Florida

18 ft sailboat on good trailer sold as is No leaks Small cabin No mast No title Trailer in good shape/good tires Must sell! 407-448-9749 leave message

Sailboat 35 ft., Columbia 10.7 meters

Sailboat 35 ft., Columbia 10.7 meters

Richmond, California

Sailboat, 1978 Columbia Yacht 10.7 Meters, 35' Wide-body Super-cruiser (roomy), Model 351, Alan Payne, Designer, Excellent Condition with recent upgrades, Great SF Bay and Coastal Cruiser. Wonderful live-aboard qualities. We have tried to price this fairly, however please feel free to make a reasonable offer. We are willing to work with a serious buyer to better understand what kind of boat you get for the price here in the SF Bay area. Please know there are significant differences between a regular 35' Columbia and 10.7 metered Columbia which is 35' in length. Columbia Yacht builders created a "metered series" which are more luxurious yachts with teak and holly flooring, lots of beautiful teak in the interior and much more along with the famous "wineglass" transom. LOA 35'2", LWL 26'7", Beam 11'4", Draft 5'5", Displacement 13,900 lbs., Ballast 5100 lbs., Sloop Rig, Sail Area Totals 532 sq. ft., Main 222 sq. ft., Foretriangle 310 sq. ft. Lifelines and Standing rigging, new in 1999 New in 2007: Foam and Upholstery in Interior, Dodger and Sail Cover. Custom Mattress in V-Berth includes built-in Memory foam on one side Diesel Fuel tank 30 gal., Water tanks 88 gal., Sleeps 6, Cabin Headroom 6'2", Vertical Clearance 47'4" Diesel Engine: Yanmar 2QM20, 22 H.P. @3000 RPM Marine Reversing Gearbox (transmission) Model KBW10 with 2.14 gear ratio (Factory New, installed in 2000); Bronze 14x14 3-bladed Propeller. 3 Sails: A Fully Battened Dacron Main; with 120% Dacron Genoa on a Harken Jib Reefing and Furling System; New in 1997/like new condition now, Asymmetrical Nylon Spinnaker with ATN Spinnaker Sleeve and ATN Tacker. Navtec Hydraulic Backstay Adjuster Simpson Lawrence Hyspeed 510 Double Action Lever Windlass, RCA60 (New in 1997); CQR 35 Bow anchor with 3/8" x 150' of Chain plus 5/8" x 90' Braided Rode with double bow anchor rollers. Electronics: Furuno Marine Radar, Model-1720, 7 ranges from 0.25 to 16 nm; Garmin GPS, Model 120; Two VHF Radios, 1 in Cockpit and 1 at Nav. Station; AM/FM Radio/Tape player with inside and outside speakers. Edson, Aft cockpit pedestal steering wheel; Autohelm ST 4000 Wheeldrive Autopilot; The 10.7 Sailboat has a traditional wineglass transom that pulls the quarter wave aft, dampens pitching and makes for a balanced helm at all angles of heel. Split stern rail with swim/safety ladder Quick Vang, Model B-18 (Boom Vang eliminates Topping Lift) 3-Burner Propane Stove with Oven, Like new condition Stainless Steel Davit, used for raising Outboard motor and stern anchor. Spinnaker Pole 14'5" x 3 1/8" Bottom painted and hull waxed in November, 2014. Many more items not listed. As is for $39,995. All items in photos are subject to change without notice. Please assume this is available for sale as I will remove the listing when sold. Your phone number with any questions is helpful, thank you.

1984 Renkin Tangerine Sailboat

1984 Renkin Tangerine Sailboat

Model Tangerine

The Renkin 18 was a hugely popular sailboat. It is a shallow keel making it easy to maneuver on smaller lakes etc. This boat was also made with an orange hull and was called a Tangerine. If you are familiar with the Tangerine this is probably the nicest one you'll find available! Why? Because this boat has been in storage in a dry garage since 1994 with the sails were tucked away in a nylon sail bag. When we pulled it out of storage this year the only issue was the tires on the trailer. We bought brand new tires and rims and its ready to go.For me the look and feel of the tiller is something important. I've included a picture for all you skippers. We also have a custom made boat cover. It was torn in a storm but could be used as a pattern or possibly repaired.Technical InformationBoat name: Renken 18 Sailboat (R18)LOA: 17'6"LWL: 15'3"Draft: 24"Beam: 6'4"Keel: fixed shoalDisplacement: 1220 lbsBallast: 450 lbsSleeps: 2 adults, 2 childrenSail area: main = 91 sq ft, jib = 59 sq ft, (total = 150 sq ft)Portsmouth # (for regattas): 112.4

Catalina 30 Sailboat

Catalina 30 Sailboat

Elephant Butte, New Mexico

30' Catalina 30, 1977 For Sale in Elephant Butte, New Mexico Catalina has been one of the most popular sailboat builders in America. Designed by legendary boat builder Frank Butler, the Catalina 30 has been one of the most popular and longest production cruisers of any boat in her class. Her beamy 10' 10" hull provides for a spacious cabin that is perfectly laid out for cruising. Her heavy ballasted shoal draft keel and tall-rig design enable her to perform with excellent sailing characteristics in a wide variety of wind conditions. She is a deck-stepped masthead sloop with single upper shrouds and spreaders, double lower shrouds, split adjustable backstay, with an rigid boom vang, Harken furling head sail, and a custom balanced rudder for added performance. Her cockpit is equipped with two primary two speed Lewmar 40 winches and a Lewmar single speed winch at the foot of the mast. Her pedestal steering and large wrap around cockpit seating offers plenty of room for captain and crew while maintaining easy access to winches, clutches, and lines. Below deck her roomy forward v-berth offers ample room for two adults, aft of the main cabin and to port is her head with standup shower and a large hanging lock to starboard. Further aft she has a large L-shaped dinette with starboard settee and well appointed galley. The convenient navigators station to starboard offers a great place to plot your course and plan your next adventure! Her tall-rig, custom balanced rudder, and stiff sailing characteristics make this Catalina 30 an absolute pleasure to sail. Day sails, week long cruises, and the occasional club race can all be enjoyed in this beautiful sailboat. Contact the listing broker today for more details! *She can be seen by appoint by contacting the listing broker today. Her owner is motivated and will consider all reasonable offers. You may also make an Internet offer contingent to your personal inspection and contingencies. Call or email today to arrange for a viewing or to submit an offer. We look forward to hearing from you. Additional Specs, Equipment and Information: Specs Builder: Catalina Designer: Frank Butler Flag of Registry: United States Keel: Fin Dimensions LOA: 29 ft 11 in Beam: 10 ft 10 in Maximum Draft: 4 ft 4 in Dry Weight: 10200 lbs Engines Total Power: 30 HP Engine 1: Engine Brand: Atomic Engine Model: 4 Engine/Fuel Type: Gas/Petrol Propeller: 3 blade propeller Engine Power: 30 HP Tanks Fresh Water Tanks: (15 Gallons) Fuel Tanks: (18 Gallons) Holding Tanks: (18 Gallons) Accommodations Number of double berths: 2 Number of cabins: 1 Number of heads: 1 Electronics Plotter GPS Compass Radio VHF CD player Rigging Steering wheel Inside Equipment Electric bilge pump Hot water Electric head Outside Equipment/Extras Swimming ladder

1984 Catalina 25 Sailboat

1984 Catalina 25 Sailboat

Nordman, Idaho

1984 Catalina 25 Sailboat. Tall Ship. 25 ft. Swing Keel. Bristol condition! - Exterior wood refinished last season (beautiful)- Has always been under cover when stored. - Can accommodate up to 4 persons comfortably but it does sleep 6.- Popup Top with Full Canvas Enclosure to give plenty of standup room in the galley.- Swing keel draft is 18" to 5 ft. - 7.5 Horsepower Honda Motor- Comes with a galley with 2 burner alcohol stove sink and ice box- Marine head & sink (we never used)Less than BR Marine Radio- Stereo is a single disc CD player and more- All sails in good to excellent condition including a blue white & teal sail- Custom window in the aft berth- Custom boards to make another bed in the galley across the benches or on deck in the cockpit- Custom rigging to the aft to allow one person to sail alone- Mast Assist Tools- Lots of equipment in the hull under the cockpit which will stay with the boat- Custom Wood Anchor Mount on the bow sprint.- NEVER BEEN SAILED IN SALTWATER!!- Comes with a custom trailer with the extended arm- You can sail this boat alone very easily- Clear title in hand- This is a must see boat and everything within works well. Boat has always been very well taken care of....in better condition than several newer boats we've seen. - Serious inquiries only. Qualified buyers may be eligible for Full Financing Nationwide Shipping and Extended Warranty.- ~S~

1979 Hunter 27 Sailboat

1979 Hunter 27 Sailboat

Allentown, Pennsylvania

Sailboat is currently in the water and can be inspected by appointmentHauling and delivery available On Deck Bimini Canopy3 winches with handlesWinch/steering wheel coversIlluminated compassAnchor with 150 chain/rodeGas grilleMain sail coverShore power connector complete with # 10 power cord (30 amp)Solar panel Fold up swim ladderCushions for cockpit seatingElectrical: Illuminated control panel with fuseStandard Horizon gpsApelco depth/temp/fish finderBattery selector switch2 batteries (deep cycle)\Solar chargerNavigation lighting, anchor lightBilge pump with alarm indicatorInterior lightingVhf radioSound system with 4speakers350 watt ac 120 volt inverter Life Safety Equipment: Fire extinguishersFlare gunFlares4 lifevests Galley: 2 burner Origo 4000 Alcohol stove with sink, pressueized water,faucet and 12 volt DC refrigerator/freezer . Saloon: Saloon is floor is dry and in good condition with clean cushions and matching curtains.Storage port and starboard sides with 2 cabinets and folding table Electric head complete with holding tank , deck mounted pump-out fitting and new seacocks.Sink with pressurized water faucet adjacent to headRigging/Sails: Both the standing and running rigging are in good working condition as well as the sails 1 135% Genoa complete with roller furler and 1 full main sail with reef adjustments Engine Specifications: Yanmar diesel 2 cylinder 2GM20 with 387 hoursengines starts as it should and runs wellDripless shaft seal3 bladed propellerSpare filtersHull Type: Fin with rudder on skegRig Type: Masthead SloopLOA: 27.17' / 8.28mLWL: 22.00' / 6.71mBeam: 9.25' / 2.82mListed SA: 343 ft2 / 31.86 m2Draft (max.) 4.25' / 1.30mDraft (min.) Disp. 7000 lbs./ 3175 kgs.Ballast: 3000 lbs. / 1361 kgs.SA/Disp.: 15.04Bal./Disp.: 42.87%Disp./Len.: 293.48Designer: John CherubiniBuilder: Hunter Marine (USA)Construct.: FGBal. type: First Built: 1974Last Built: 1984# Built: 2000AUXILIARY POWER (orig. equip.)Make: RenaultModel: Type: DieselHP: 8TANKSWater: 35 gals. / 132 ltrs.Fuel: 12 gals. / 45 ltrs.RIG DIMENSIONS KEYI: 34.50' / 10.52mJ: 11.50' / 3.51mP: 29.00' / 8.84mE: 10.00' / 3.05mPY: EY: SPL: ISP: SA(Fore.): 198.38 ft2 / 18.43 m2SA(Main): 145.00 ft2 / 13.47 m2Total(calc.)SA: 343.38 ft2 / 31.90 m2DL ratio: 293.48SA/Disp: 15.06Est. Forestay Len.: 36.37' / 11.08mBUILDERS (past & present)More about & boats built by: Hunter Marine (USA)DESIGNER

1984 Catalina 25 Sailboat

23' Bano Old World 18 Gaffrig Sailboat 1982

Holland, Michigan

Call Boat Owner Stanley 616-742-9995.Tan/Bark sails also a white set, roller furl jib, fiberglass hull with spruce mast, boom and gaff. Also teak and oak. Many extras. Trailer. 18ft at waterline, draft 15in or 3ft with keel down, full set of covers

Sailboat, 21ft, Gaff topsail cutter rig, motor, trailer, 8 sails, rigging

Sailboat, 21ft, Gaff topsail cutter rig, motor, trailer, 8 sails, rigging

Adams Run, South Carolina

Make Windjammer Yachts

Model Gaff Topsail, Cutter

Length 21.0

This is Hull #1, 1961, Windjammer 21's from California, designed by Morgan Embrogan and built in Southern California back in the 60's and early 70's by various commercial builders. There were at least 15 built and I have a gaff-rigged, topsail cutter. This Windjammer sailed to Hawaii and back from California twice and to Alaska and back to CA. boats have very easily folded masts, even under sail, fit into US containers (24). The Windjammer 21 will sleep 4 in separate bunks and is very comfortable under way and in the slip. With quadrant centerboard up it draw 18 inches and weight empty is 2500#. It has always been great in the Channel Islands because it cuts over the kelp and because it is so light we used to tie off to the kelp (don't shoot me) to keep from carrying 600' feet of line and extra chain necessary to normal anchor around the islands. Boat is in Charleston, SC now on a trailer. Steel trailer has 4 new tires, wheels, bearings, recently pulled from Florida. 6 bags of sails, all rigging, outboard in a well, boat is ready to sail but could use some TLC, paint, varnish, etc. Photo of Black hull boat is a sistership. Could deliver for a fee if needed after purchase.

45 Foot Morgan Design S&J Sailboat

45 Foot Morgan Design S&J Sailboat

Galveston, Texas

Make Morgan

Model Starratt & Jenks 45

Length 45.0

1977 45 foot Morgan Starratt and Jenks Sailboat (Coast Guard Documented) Hull material: fiberglassHull shape: full keel (lead encapsulated - 12,000 lb. ballast)Length: 45 ft. 9 in.Beam: 11 ft.Draft: 6 ft. 1 in. Engine: Volvo Penta D2 55 F (new engine and new gearbox installed 2011)Current engine hours: 27Shaft: 1.25 in. Diameter / Aqua Met 19 material (new 2011)Shaft Seal: PSS drip less shaft seal with carbon flange and stainless steel collar (new 2011)Prop: Two blade fixed 18 in. Diameter X 13 in. PitchExhaust: Inline water lift muffler and 2.5 in. Corrugated exhaust hose with exhaust Groco valve for heavy following seas (all new 2011)New throttle cable 2011Water strainer: Groco top of the line bronze strainer (new 2011)Raw water hoses: all new 2011 Standing Rigging: 1x19 stainless steel 316 material; uppers 3/8 in., lowers 5/16 in. Two back stays(could setup as yawl), one forestay, two upper side stays, four lower side stays. Hayn Hi-Mod compression eyes (top and bottoms) & huge turnbuckles, toggles. (All New 2011, except turnbuckles and toggles). Bottom paint: 7 coats Pettit Vivid bottom paint( multi colors for different layers) 2011Bottom primer: 3 coats Pettit Hi-build epoxy primer & 2 coats west epoxy below the primer. 2011 Starting battery: AGM Sears Die Hard Platinum deep cycle / starting (2011 new)House battery: AGM 8D Mastervolt (2011 new)Battery switch / isolator installedSolar Panel: 40 wattShore power charger: 10 amp each x 2 banks (AGM, gel, or conventional)LED spreader lights (new 2011), AC shore power outlets inside cabin (4 installed) Communications: VHF, RG213 ancor cable (new 2011), new Antennae whip 2011 Steering: Edson, rudder pinned at bottom of keel with bronze shoe. Stainless steel rudder shaft. Diesel Tank: Needs new, location for at least 50 gallons. Fresh water tanks: 1 plastic at least 20 gallons, plus Vetus water bladder.Holding tank: 1 with plumbing ready for new head (head currently not installed, plumbing is installed though) Berthing: 1 quarter berth, one cabin, one v berth area, but storage area for now, one couch location capable of adult sleeping, one couch area capable of child sleeping.Cushions: cockpit cushions provided in good shape, new interior cushions needed. Galley area: Nice double deep stainless steel sink, Formica counter tops, stove in good condition with stainless steel fuel tank and pressure gauge. Boat is sold as is and where is, descriptions given for reference only. It is buyers duty to make thorough investigation prior to making offer or accepting buy it now price. Non-refundable deposit is required upon accepting buy it now price or placing offer that is accepted by seller. Buyer is responsible for storage, and delivery upon purchase. No warranties apply or given from seller. Buyer assumes all responsibility of ownership fully! For viewing of vessel or questions prior to close of listing, please notify seller via email [email protected] or thru eBay platform.

Gastron Spirit 6.5 Sailboat (Spirit 21)

Gastron Spirit 6.5 Sailboat (Spirit 21)

Memphis, Tennessee

Make Spirit

Length 21.3

1978 Gastron Spirit 6.5 Sailboat - also known as Spirit 21Clean - Good Condition! Includes: Boat, Mast, Mainsail, Jib, 2005 Mercury Bigfoot 9.9 Outboard with Tiller Steering, Anchor, and Trailer (New trailer tires)SPIRIT 21 (6.5)(drawing on sailboatdata.com)Hull Type:Swing KeelRig Type:Masthead SloopLOA:21.25' / 6.48mLWL:18.75' / 5.72mBeam:7.83' / 2.39mListed SA:195 ft2 / 18.12 m2Draft (max.)5.00' / 1.52mDraft (min.)1.70' / 0.52mDisp.2100 lbs./ 953 kgs.Ballast:550 lbs. / 249 kgs.SA/Disp.:19.07Bal./Disp.:26.13%Disp./Len.:142.22Designer:Hank HinckleyBuilder:Glastron (USA)Construct.:FGBal. type:First Built:1977Last Built:# Built:RIG DIMENSIONS KEYI(IG):25.15' / 7.67mJ:8.82' / 2.69mP:21.10' / 6.43mE:8.00' / 2.44mPY:EY:SPL/TPS:ISP:SA(Fore.):110.91 ft2 / 10.30 m2SA(Main):84.40 ft2 / 7.84 m2Total(calc.)SA:195.31 ft2 / 18.14 m2DL ratio:142.22SA/Disp:19.10Est. Forestay Len.:26.65' / 8.12mBUILDERS (past & present)More about & boats built by: Glastron (USA)DESIGNERMore about & boats designed by: Robert FinchNOTESAlso called SPIRIT 6.5.According to Spirit/Glastron literature literature, the SPIRIT 21/SPIRIT 6.5 was designed by Hank Hinckley. This attribution raises interesting questions that have, as yet, remain unanswered.

Gastron Spirit 21 Sailboat 1978 - Lost Job. Must Sell!!

Gastron Spirit 21 Sailboat 1978 - Lost Job. Must Sell!!

Germantown, Tennessee

Model 21 - Lost Job. Must Sell!!

1978 Gastron Spirit 6.5 Sailboat - also known as Spirit 21Boat is Clean - Good Condition! Just, tow it, step the mast and sail it!Includes: Boat, Mast, Mainsail, Jib, Anchor, Rudder, Depth Finder and Trailer (New trailer tires)SPIRIT 21 (6.5)(drawing on sailboatdata.com)Hull Type: Swing Keel Rig Type: Masthead SloopLOA: 21.25' / 6.48m LWL: 18.75' / 5.72mBeam: 7.83' / 2.39m Listed SA: 195 ft2 / 18.12 m2Draft (max.) 5.00' / 1.52m Draft (min.) 1.70' / 0.52mDisp. 2100 lbs./ 953 kgs. Ballast: 550 lbs. / 249 kgs.SA/Disp.: 19.07 Bal./Disp.: 26.13% Disp./Len.: 142.22Designer: Hank HinckleyBuilder: Glastron (USA)Construct.: FG Bal. type: First Built: 1977 Last Built: # Built: RIG DIMENSIONS KEYI(IG): 25.15' / 7.67m J: 8.82' / 2.69mP: 21.10' / 6.43m E: 8.00' / 2.44mPY: EY: SPL/TPS: ISP: SA(Fore.): 110.91 ft2 / 10.30 m2 SA(Main): 84.40 ft2 / 7.84 m2Total(calc.)SA: 195.31 ft2 / 18.14 m2 DL ratio: 142.22SA/Disp: 19.10 Est. Forestay Len.: 26.65' / 8.12mBUILDERS (past & present)More about & boats built by: Glastron (USA)DESIGNERMore about & boats designed by: Robert FinchNOTESAlso called SPIRIT 6.5. On Oct-11-15 at 12:47:59 PDT, seller added the following information: $500 Deposit via PayPal due within 24 hours of purchase.

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  1. Marshall Sanderling

    Marshall 22. Sakonnet 23. Brokerage. 508.994.0414 • 55 Shipyard Lane, South Dartmouth, MA 02748. The Sanderling is a common sense daysailer/weekender offering a spacious cockpit and roomy cabin unrivaled by any boat of similar length. LOA: 18'2" LWL: 17'6" Beam: 8' 6" Draft: 19"board up & 4' 4" board down Sail Area: 253 sq. ft ...

  2. Marshall Marine Corporation

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  3. SOL CAT 18

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  4. Alerion Express Cat 19 and Marshall Sanderling 18

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  5. Our New 40 Year Old Herreshoff America 18 Catboat

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  6. Fenwick Williams's 18' Catboat

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  7. Sol Cat 18

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  8. Herreshoff America Cat Boat 18

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  9. Sol Cat 18

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  10. Solcat 18 :: Catamaran Sailboats at TheBeachcats.com

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  11. Com-Pac Yachts: Trailerable Cat Boats, Trailerable Cruisers, and

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  12. catboat sailboats for sale by owner.

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  13. Sol cat 18

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  14. Williams 18' Catboat

    Designed by Fenwick Williams LOA - 18'LWL- 17' 6"Beam - 8' 6"Draft (cb up) - 2' (cb down) - 4' 8"Displ. - 3,763 lbs. Sail Area - 247 - 265 sq. ft.Construction: Carvel planked over sawn & steamed framesLofting is requiredSkill level: AdvancedPlans include 11 sheets, plus 4 pages of additional notes from the designer. ... Sail Area - 247 - 265 sq ...

  15. Herreshoff 18 Boats for sale

    Make Cat Boat. Model Herreshoff. Category Daysailer Sailboats. Length 18.0. Posted Over 1 Month. A 18 foot fiberglass Herreshoff Catboat built in 1974. Perfect daysailer or overnighter. Ready to go in the water.Trailer NOT included. Priced to sell at $7900 or best offer.Its a nice boat !

  16. Hobie Cat 18 Boats for sale

    1976 Hobie Cat Hobie 18 Hobie Cat 18. This is a great boat and a blast to sail. New jib, trampoline, sheets, tiller arm and standing rigging. I picked this boat up in California five years ago and completed a total rehab, the hulls are solid. I trailer the boat to Rocky Point, Mexico to sail off Sandy Beach.

  17. 18' Catboat

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  18. 18 Sol Cat Sailboat Boats for sale

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  19. hobie cat sailboats for sale by owner.

    hobie cat preowned sailboats for sale by owner. hobie cat used sailboats for sale by owner. Home. Register & Post. View All Sailboats. Search. Avoid Fraud. ... 18' Carpinteria Boat Works Lion 550 Ventura, California Asking $29,900. 26.3' Ranger 26 Sailboat Palm Coast, Florida Asking $15,000. 46' Bleu Marine Lasporte 46

  20. Alpha Cat 18

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  21. Cats On Liveaboard Sailboats

    June 15, 2022. Cats are fun, safe, and friendly companions to countless liveaboard sailors. Caring for a cat on a sailboat can also be easy. Cats can live safely and comfortably aboard sailboats with proper space, ventilation, climate control, and safety precautions. Most cities and marinas allow cats aboard, and they're easy to care for if ...

  22. 18 Ft Sailboat Boats for sale

    Swing keel draft is 18" to 5 ft. - 7.5 Horsepower Honda Motor- Comes with a galley with 2 burner alcohol stove sink and ice box- Marine head & sink (we never used)Less than BR Marine Radio- Stereo is a single disc CD player and more- All sails in good to excellent condition including a blue white & teal sail- Custom window in the aft berth ...